Tag Archive: computer aided instruction


Questioning strategies in Healthcare Training develop critical thinking, decision making, and problem solving in students. Bloom’s taxonomy of the six levels of cognitive learning can be used to provide a framework for creating questions. Bloom’s taxonomy starts from the simplest level of learning to the most complex level.  Simplest levels denote Knowledge and Complex levels denote Evaluation.

Sample Question for Knowledge Test:

Intravenous Urogram

Knowledge Test

Asking a learner to define Intravenous Urogram, (IVU) would test his/her knowledge levels.

Sample Question for Evaluation:

Intravenous Urogram

Complex Evaluation

A question is posed to the learner to  assess a request to perform an IVU on a patient allergic to iodine. Experiential activities/ simulations can be built to guide the learner in decision making. In this case, the learner gets to immerse in a simulated scenario, evaluate patient vitals, reports and assess the conditions under which an Iodine-allergic patient can be subjected to Intravenous Urogram.

Studies:

A baccalaureate nursing program study determined what proportion of terminal objectives for clinical nursing courses are high level objectives (analysis, synthesis, evaluation), and are the kinds of questions asked by teachers and students during clinical conferences of a high level also.  Despite the fact that stated objectives specified higher cognitive-level thinking, lower-level questions comprised 98.94% of the total number of questions asked by teachers and students in the clinical conferences surveyed.

Another study was performed within an Australian nursing program to examine clinical teachers’ use of questioning strategies.   The teachers’ years of classroom and clinical teaching experience, years of clinical experience, and academic qualifications were studied to see if an association between various qualifications and levels of questions existed.  Bloom’s taxonomy of the cognitive domain was used as a framework for the study.  The findings revealed clinical teachers asked more low-level questions (91.2%) than high-level questions (4.4%).

Lower level questioning do not promote critical thinking as they only trigger recall of information in the learner’s mind.  A simple recall of information does not enhance students’ understanding of the information in a meaningful way. Higher level questioning facilitates the development of critical thinking because it is aimed at higher cognitive levels, which involves application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation.   Educators should take advantage of stimulating questions more often to help create meaningful active learning instead of just prompting the simple recall of knowledge from students.

Scenario- based learning stages a context, within which learners live and work in their everyday life. It’s based on the concept of situated cognition, which is the idea that knowledge can not be developed and fully understood independent of its context(Randall 2002). Scenario-based learning puts the student in a situation or context and exposes them to issues, challenges and dilemmas and asks them to apply knowledge and practice skills relevant to the situation (www.ucl.ac.uk).

Scenario- based learning has particular advantages for practice- based discipline areas where the experience of practitioners is especially relevant to what constitutes knowledge and understanding in the field. Using scenario-based learning in the field of Healthcare has brought forward many such advantages to learners that count on practical experience in everyday activities.

Let us consider a case where Indira Gandhi National Open University conducted such a scenario-based learning project. 10 academic programs were chosen to be included into this project.

The following frame work was given to develop the scenarios:
1. Define critical competencies for graduates of the program
2. Identify learning outcomes for students in the program
3. Identify learning context and develop suitable learning scenarios that reflect the events in life and work of persons who have acquired these competencies
4. Define learning activities assessable and non assessable tasks.
5. Identify all learning resources and instructional opportunities
6. Identify and define cooperative and collaborative learning opportunities using technologies.
7. Identification and definition of opportunities for feedback and remediation.

Let us study a sample scenario as an example:

Discipline: Civil Engineering

Topic: Structural Analysis

Learning Objectives:

1) To distinguish between static and dynamic loads
2) To conceptualize the influence lines
3) To differentiate between Influence Line Diagram (ILD) and Bending Moment Diagram (BMD)

Scenario:

It was a shining morning of October. All students of your class are in cheerful mood traveling to Roorkee in Jan- Shatabdi Express for educational trip with Prof. Dutta.
Suddenly, you feel a shock as train stops abruptly. While waiting for the train to re- start, it is leant that due to some accident on the bridge ahead, the train will not move at least for next 5 hrs.
Out of curiosity you all move to the accident site with Prof Datta. You observe that there is a lot of distortion of the track and even the rails have gone out of place. While discussing the reasons of track failure, Amit points out the presence of visible cracks in the side beam
of the bridge. Suresh asks Prof. Datta whether the bridge failure is due to excess loading.

In turn, Prof. Datta asks the students, whether they remember different types of loading on the structures. You all start naming the different types of loading, you have seen earlier.

Learning Activity 1:

a) List out the different types of loading on structures.
b) Categorize the above list into static and dynamic loads.

After going through the list, Prof. Dutta asks you that why the live loads are not considered as dynamic load when the movement of goods and human beings are considered in the live load.

Learning Activity 2:

Identify the characteristics of static loads and dynamic loads.

Prof. Datta asks the learners to tie a rope across two poles tightly. He then asks Suresh to hang four bricks at four different places and observe the deflected shape of the rope.

Simulation 1: Prof Datta asks you to remove the three bricks from the rope starting from the right pole and observe the deflection of rope at mid point.

simulation activity

Simulation 2: The he asks to repeat the same exercise by moving the brick at points B, C , D and E subsequently and observe the deflection at mid point each time.

simulation activity

Conclusion: The whole scenario-based learning program was developed to be very challenging and was able to completely immerse the learners into the learning cycle.

 

Body Physics is where disparate systems share with each other under one single platform.

Google Plus

Collaboration Life

Perhaps Google took  a lesson to converge all sharing systems into one giant platform. Google is creating an unified army for battle. Google’s services are soon going to inter-collaborate into one giant social platform, and in the process steal some teeth from Facebook.

“We’d like to bring the nuance and richness of real-life sharing to software. We want to make Google better by including you, your relationships, and your interests. And so begins the Google+ project”, says  Vic Gundotra, Senior Vice President, Engineering at Google.

 

 

+Circles: share what matters, with the people who matter most

 

Circle around life

What’s in it: You share different things with different people. So sharing the right stuff with the right people shouldn’t be a hassle. Circles makes it easy to put your friends from Saturday night in one circle, your parents in another, and your boss in a circle by himself – just like real life.

Google Speaks:  “What do people actually do?” And we didn’t have to search far for the answer. People in fact share selectively all the time—with their circles.
From close family to foodies, we found that people already use real-life circles to express themselves, and to share with precisely the right folks. So we did the only thing that made sense: we brought Circles to software. Just make a circle, add your people, and share what’s new—just like any other day.

+Sparks: strike up a conversation, about pretty much anything

 

Sparking Life

What’s in it: Tell Sparks what you’re into and it will send you stuff it thinks you’ll like, so when you’re free, there’s always something cool to watch, read, or share.

Google Speaks: The web, of course, is filled with great content—from timely articles to vibrant photos to funny videos. And great content can lead to great conversations. We noticed, however, that it’s still too hard to find and share the things we care about—not without lots of work, and lots of noise. So, we built an online sharing engine called Sparks.

 

 

+Hangouts: stop by and say hello, face-to-face-to-face

 

Hangout with life

What’s in it: With Hangouts, the unplanned meet-up comes to the web for the first time. Let specific buddies (or entire circles) know you’re hanging out and then see who drops by for a face-to-face-to-face chat. Until teleportation arrives, it’s the next best thing.

Google Speaks: Just think, when you walk into the pub or step onto your front porch, you’re in fact signaling to everyone around, “Hey, I’ve got some time, so feel free to stop by.” Further, it’s this unspoken understanding that puts people at ease, and encourages conversation. But today’s online communication tools (like instant messaging and video-calling) don’t understand this subtlety. With Google+ we wanted to make on-screen gatherings fun, fluid and serendipitous, so we created Hangouts.

+Mobile: share what’s around, right now, without any hassle

 

Mobility in life

What’s in it: Taking photos is fun. Sharing photos is fun. Getting photos off your phone is pretty much the opposite of fun. With Instant Upload, your photos and videos upload themselves automatically, to a private album on Google+.  All you have to do is decide who to share them with.

Google Speaks: Getting photos off your phone is a huge pain, so most of us don’t even bother. Of course pictures are meant to be shared, not stranded, so we created Instant Upload to help you never leave a photo behind. While you’re snapping pictures, and with your permission, Google+ adds your photos to a private album in the cloud. This way they’re always available across your devices—ready to share as you see fit.

+Mobile-
+Huddle: Huddling your groups in

 

Huddle in Life

What’s in it: Texting is great, but not when you’re trying to get six different people to decide on a movie. Huddle turns all those different conversations into one simple group chat, so everyone gets on the same page all at once. Your thumbs will thank you.

Google Speaks: Phone calls and text messages can work in a pinch, but they’re not quite right for getting the gang together. So Google+ includes Huddle, a group messaging experience that lets everyone inside the circle know what’s going on, right this second.

Google Hopes you join in, but its entirely +You.

HTML 5 holds enormous promise for the browser experience without a plug-in requirement. Capabilities include drag-and-drop file copy, animation, video playback with synchronization, all sorts of transitions, interactive canvas and font manipulation, advanced typography, Web SQL data storage and rollback, online/offline testing and a myriad of others available now or under way.

If you are still unsure about HTML5, just take a look at some of Apple’s past bets. The company’s flagship technologies such as FireWire and SCSI, foresaw that CDs would replace floppies and that all computers would need Ethernet, and was using SIMM modules when others were still inserting memory chips one at a time.

Chrome, Firefox and Safari browsers now support HTML5. Microsoft is planning to support it, and maintains an excellent HTML5 Web site where it displays news, capabilities and emerging features about HTML5 and other technologies that have not yet been standardized.

And when combined with CSS3 and JavaScript, as in Apple’s HTML5 demo web site, its potential to create amazing Web experiences simply knows no bounds. Indeed, there appear to be no limits on the type and scope of applications built with HTML5. For example, there’s an effort to build HTML5 WebSockets, which permit bi-directional communication between the browser and the Web server, giving it the ability to update browser content without the need to reload the page. And as with all HTML versions, apps made with HTML5 would be cross-platform and would not reply on proprietary operating system-specific runtimes.
Read More at http://goo.gl/7vhnO

Medical Education in the virtual world- A Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) pilot program

Virtual worlds have rapidly become an immersive tool for medical education and training. BMC piloted a post-graduation medical education program in the virtual world. Their objectives were:

1. to explore the potential of a virtual world for delivering CME
2. determine possible instructional designs using Second Life for CME
3. determine the limitations of Second Life for CME
4. measure participant learning outcomes and feedback

The program:

BMC started with an existing BUSM Second Life build that was built earlier as a joint project with WHO. The virtual location was a private island which was later modified to an outdoor with no roof, open walkways and automatic seating.

The Recruits:

To keep the attendance low, 14 physicians were selected for this pilot. Out of 14, 8 were female primary care physicians. Participants resided in different states namely NC, IL, CA, MA, SC, CT, KY. Out of 14, 3 were already experienced in second life and hence remaining 11 were trained on using second life.

The Instructional Design:

Immersive e-learningA 40-minute insulin therapy lecture was created with focus on key concepts, added visual elements, strategic questions (to be answered by chat). Two mock diabetic patients were designed. A backchat was created where every avatar in the immediate vicinity would hear (read as a call-out) the chat.

The session was programed to be conducted on Monday, June 15, 2009 from 7 PM to 8 PM. The session officially ended at 8 PM but participants stayed until 8.30 PM socializing. Overall the program was successful and the objectives were met at the collection of feedback gathered.

Detailed readings at http://www.jmir.org/2010/1/e1/